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Customer Magazine BEYOND SURFACES 2018/02

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Layer players: these experts pursue coating perfection
Breaking boundaries: on the verge of new laser cladding applications In the fast lane: these surface treatments are driving automotive

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ドキュメント名 Customer Magazine BEYOND SURFACES 2018/02
ドキュメント種別 その他
ファイルサイズ 6.6Mb
取り扱い企業 日本エリコンバルザース株式会社 (この企業の取り扱いカタログ一覧)

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Customer Magazine 02|2018 BEYOND SURFACES Layer players: these experts pursue coating perfection Breaking boundaries: on the verge of new laser cladding applications In the fast lane: these surface treatments are driving automotive Prof. Paul Heinz Mayrhofer, TU Wien
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«When we talk about coating, then we don’t just mean the layer itself. We see and understand the requirement involved, give thought to a solution – and look for the best answer that must be both ecologically and economically sound.»
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A personal insight 3 «JUST COAT IT» IS SO YESTERDAY Faster, more durable, lighter, more Heinz Mayrhofer, Chair of Materials Science e conomical – these properties are readily Research at the TU Wien, relates to us start- used to characterize the products of our ing on page 6. modern world. At Oerlikon, our association here is primarily that of resource efficiency: Challenges and inspiration alike result from reduced losses due to friction, less wear, less long-standing partnerships with industry, such material employed, less fuel consumed, to as with Kazuyuki Kubota, Head of Manufactur- cite some examples. ing Department and visionary for coating tech- nologies at Mitsubishi Hitachi Tool Engineering, This is where our coatings play to their Ltd. in Japan. For more than 30 years, we have strengths. But not only that: Whereas they been pursuing answers to the same question used to be problem solvers and were included side by side: What can we make possible next? in functional considerations, today they are On page 26, Kazuyuki Kubota shares a few of also a design element. For us, efficiency in his visionary ideas with you. this context also means thinking outside the box. Where can we offer added value beyond A shared idea also bonds us with a division the mere coating? How can the entire manu- of Daimler AG in China, the Beijing Benz facturing process be fine-tuned for more Automotive Co., Ltd.: How can we best pro- expediency in the customer’s interest? This is tect our environment from pollution? That we why the range of services we offer no longer sometimes even need to “rediscover metal” to comprises coatings alone. We give thought do so is reported in our story on page 10. to the Before – meaning how the surfaces can be best prepared for a coating. And we This is precisely what sums up Oerlikon for me: give equal consideration to the After – mean- a pioneering spirit that has remained unbroken ing what is the best post-treatment for the for decades, always seeking out the best tools or components that will enhance the solutions for our customers and for our world. customer benefit. Both the pre-treatment and the post-treatment are an integral part of It’s my desire to share this enthusiasm with our service for customers, which begins with you through the articles in our magazine fundamental consulting and does not stop BEYOND SURFACES as our customers tell with our delivery service. about their very specific solutions and our staff and partners report on their passion to Our heart beats for technology, for our make things “faster, lighter, more durable, and systems, our materials, and our processes. more efficient.” In research and development, questions dealing with surfaces that are “smoother” and I wish you great reading enjoyment on this harder, have greater temperature stability and journey of discovery. just generally exhibit continuously improving mechanical properties, are our daily bread. Cordially yours, The same holds true for our partners in industry and at universities with whom we join forces in the search for new solutions, with the end goal of making those solutions industrially exploitable in a manner that serves Marc Desrayaud our customers’ goals. The passion behind a Head of Business Unit task like this is one of the things Prof. Paul Balzers Industrial Solutions, Oerlikon BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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Technology & 38 Innovation 6 Solutions Invented by the devil Prof. Paul Mayrhofer on 10 materials and surfaces Automotive emissions motives 14 The reinvention of metal stamping at Like greased lightning Beijing Benz Automotive The right coating for every 26 engine application 30 years of “What’s next?” 16 Mitsubishi Hitachi’s appetite for Truly ingenious advances inspires Laser cladding from the 38 viewpoint of a specialist A bottle everyone is familiar with 20 BALINIT coatings for cost-saving Fine-tuned coatings p roduction of PET bottles Joint research with ETH Zurich 22 Facts & Figures Finding the right surface technology 16 35 Helping others achieve success Training as central element of knowledge transfer 42 Audit means training A combination with added value 46 Hidden champions Precision components in focus
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News 14 32 At your side Even closer to our customers 41 The fascination of technology Night of science at the TH Bingen 41 BALIFOR The smart solution for high-performance a utomotive applications 44 Stronger together New markets and partners IMPRINT BEYOND SURFACES is the Customer Magazine of the Surface Solutions Segment of the Oerlikon Group. Date of publication: May 23, 2018 Publisher Oerlikon Surface Solutions AG Churerstrasse 120, CH-8808 Pfäffikon www.oerlikon.com/balzers 10 www.oerlikon.com/metcowww.oerlikon.com/am Responsible for content: Michael Präger, Head of Group Communications and M arketing Events 29 Editor in Chief:Anika Köstinger, Content Manager Layout: up! consulting 13 The future of industry Picture credits iStock.com (p. 23, 25–30, 38–41, 44–49); 2nd Munich Technology David Payr (p. 1, 6–9, 50); Daniel Ospelt (p. 26–28); Conference on Addititve Jens Ellensohn (p. 17, 19); Daimler AG (p. 10–12); ETH Zurich (p. 20–21); Shutterstock (p. 23); Manufacturing TH Bingen (p. 41); Farsoon Technologies (p. 45); all others: Oerlikon Surface Solutions AG 29 Innovation is in beyond.surfaces@oerlikon.com our DNA BALINIT, BALITHERM, BALIQ, BALIIFOR, ePD, Oerlikon’s Innovation Day S3p and SUMEBore are brands or registered trademarks of Oerlikon Balzers or Oerlikon Metco in Lucerne and not separately marked. It cannot be concluded from a lack of marking that a term or image 49 is not a registered trademark. Trade show dates BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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6 «Without materials science, there wouldn’t be any technology. The development of mankind has always been linked to materials. There’s a good reason why entire epochs are named after them: Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, …» «God made the bulk, SURFACES WERE INVENTED BY THE DEVIL» Researchers like Paul Heinz Mayrhofer make significant contribu- tions to the expanded use of intelligent coatings in industry. During a visit in Vienna, the materials scientist explained what this is about and the role of Oerlikon Balzers in this area. By Gerhard Waldherr
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Technology & Innovation 7 Mayrhofer is a specialist in hard in the INNOVA. The material is coatings. He has received a series transformed into a vaporous state by of awards for his work. In 2011 the means of an arc evaporation process, prestigious Christian Doppler Research but also using cathode sputtering. Association awarded him a seven-year The trajectory of the ions can be laboratory grant, which he is complet- controlled using electromagnetic coils. ing this year at TU Wien. This helps them find the right place to attach themselves. The professor We have just arrived in a basement says: “You need to have an exact room in which a part of the Christian understanding of the materials right Doppler Laboratory, Application down to the atomic level.” Oriented Coating Development, is set up. It is supported by Oerlikon Balzers More on this follows in Mayrhofer’s and the Tirolean Plansee Group, offi ce. There are models of crystals which manufactures powdered on the cabinets. The wall is adorned m etallurgical materials. Nestled by a large whiteboard with a sketch between colorful hoses, wires and consisting of chemical abbreviations, gray cabinets stand numerous pieces letters and numbers, all connected by of equipment to which Mayrhofer circles and arrows. and his students have given female names. One is called Angie, another Ylvi, and another is named Noreia Prof. Mayrhofer, would you let us after the Celtic goddess of ore. in on the secret behind the formu- las on the board? Mayrhofer displays a cathode made We are currently dealing with tungsten of tantalum. The material is atomically carbide and tungsten nitride. The evaporated in the equipment using idea is to incorporate tungsten in a high input of energy. The method a hard, firm layer. On contact with employed is called Physical Vapor a sulfurous environment and high Deposition (PVD). The particles which pressures, it develops a lubricant. Its are thereby released attach themselves effect would be comparable to that of to the materials and elements in their molybdenum sulfide. Vienna, Technical University, Getreide- proximity. If they should happen to markt 9. It is a cold Tuesday in March, come into contact with drills, spindles, Essentially, you create materials nine o’clock in the morning and piston rings or the like, these objects that do not exist in that form in Univ. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Paul are given a coating which can be nature, right? Heinz Mayrhofer is punctual. He is a signifi cantly thinner than a human hair That’s right. Our objective is to develop friendly man with a youthful demeanor, and nearly as hard as a diamond. materials with higher strength and who listens benevolently and answers greater toughness, but also improved patiently. Mayrhofer mentions that he The largest piece of equipment thermal stability. Usually, however, has offi ce hours at around noon and a that the professor and his staff use these properties are mutually opposed. lecture at 2 p. m.: “Shall we?” for research purposes is called When you improve the hardness of INNOVA and has been provided by a material, it is usually at the cost of Indeed, we shall. There is a good deal Oerlikon Balzers. It is located in the old lower toughness. And vice versa. to see and even more to discuss. quarters of the TU on Karlsplatz at a distance of fi ve minutes on foot. And what would be an example Professor Mayrhofer is the director for a layman? of the materials science research Room ACEG31. There is a sign Gold is a soft metal, as we know, department at the technical university outside: PVD Laboratory. Inside which can be deformed very easily. in Vienna, known as the TU Wien. He stands a squarish box that looks like A knife made of gold would make no studied in Leoben in Styria and has a monstrous oven with soot-covered sense because it would be dull after researched in the US state of Illinois, heating coils. Up to six cathodes with the fi rst cut. That doesn’t happen in Sweden and in Aachen, Germany. different materials can be employed with a ceramic knife. However, the BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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8 to the titanium and the nitrogen, «The surface is always a complex the material properties change significantly. Aluminum also forms an matter because it is subject to so oxide layer, however it is stable and dense. Titanium aluminum nitride many influences.» is a material which develops higher strength when stressed through tem- perature or mechanically, making it ceramic knife would break immediately Which materials are the special especially suitable for drilling, cutting if it fell to the ground. So we look for focus of your research? or milling tools. combinations utilizing the strengths of A class of materials that I have dealt materials so that their drawbacks can with throughout my career is that If you combine all of the be compensated. of the nitrides. They are the chem- known elements, the possibilities ical compounds which result when are innumerable. Why did you choose a nitrogen combines with metals. A That’s right, the permutations result p rofession like this? compound with which my name is in millions of approaches. As a In my school in Burgenland, Austria, connected worldwide is titanium researcher, you are faced with ques- we took a career aptitude test in the aluminum nitride. tions your whole life long and it never 8th grade. It indicated that I should stops, especially with coatings. The p ursue a technical profession. A Which materials might be of surface is always a complex matter cousin of my mother was a shop signifi cance in the future? because it is subject to so many teacher at the polytechnic school in What has been moving into focus infl uences. The physicist Wolfgang the city of Eisenstadt. He was of the more and more of late are the Pauli used to say, “God made the bulk; opinion that I should choose materials borides, or chemical compounds surfaces were invented by the devil.” technology as my fi eld of study. A of boron with metals which display number of teachers at the polytechnic ceramic properties. They are even You have an INNOVA from school came from the university for harder than nitrides, but, naturally, are Oerlikon Balzers in your lab. metallurgy and mining in Leoben where also much more brittle. What do you use it for? I then studied materials science. We use the INNOVA to ensure that our Materials consisting of two process development is as industry What’s so fascinating about elements, such as binary nitrides, oriented as possible. The objective is m aterials science? carbides or borides, are consid- resilient, stable coatings. As we do so, Without materials science, there ered to be well researched. What we work with fundamental aspects of wouldn’t be any technology. The potential do materials consisting research fi ndings. What works. Where development of mankind has always of three or more elements have? and how it works. What spectrum of been linked to materials. There’s We refer to these as ternary, quater- possibilities exists. We also use com- a good reason why entire epochs nary or multinary compounds. These plex computer simulations with which are named after them: Stone Age, allow considerable improvements in the properties of the coatings can Bronze Age, Iron Age, … material properties. At the same time, be calculated at an atomic scale and the complexity involved in the develop- thereby improved. Oerlikon Balzers In what materials epoch are ment of multinary systems like these is specialists then refi ne our fi ndings for we living today? greater. Put differently: It takes much customer applications. As a materials scientist, I would have longer to thoroughly research and to say: in the Silicon Age. Silicon is a understand these compounds. How would you evaluate the semiconductor, so we could also say interaction between research and the Semiconductor Age. However, For example? industry in general? for communications in the modern Titanium nitride is a common com- Research and industry go hand in world, i. e. for smartphones, comput- pound of two elements that has hand. Research needs the applications ers, laptops and so forth, you also been in use now for a long time. from industry. Industry needs the need rare-earth metals. This is still a The disadvantage: It forms a porous fi ndings and knowledge from research. relatively unknown fi eld. oxide layer. But if aluminum is added The two are inseparably connected. 1 The rare-earth metals include a total of 17 chemical elements from the third group in the Periodic Table (with the exception of actinium) and the lanthanides. They find use especially in key technologies, such as LEDs, lasers, optical fiber cables or in medical technology.
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Technology & Innovation 9 You are the academic dean for m echanical engineering, industrial engineering and materials sciences. Can you comment on the added value of this interdisciplinarity? Take a turbine, for example. In it, the materials operate at their limits. The turbine blade must be exceptionally tough; it must not break under any circumstances. At 1 300 degrees Celsius, of course, it needs a ceramic coating. That is materials science to the max. Mechanical engineering supplies the technical framework. And the industrial engineer has to ensure that the turbine can be produced cost effectively. For it all to work, everyone needs to under- stand all the others. Back to materials science. If I were to compare the fi eld with a world map, is everything known and charted or are Prof. Paul Heinz there still blank spots? M ayrhofer, born My gut feeling says there are still many in 1972, lives in blank spots. In our fi eld, we tend to be at N eckenmarkt, the beginning of the discoveries because Burgenland with we don’t even know most of the element his family. combinations yet. Where does research stand? Are we still at Marco Polo or already at Christopher Columbus? Neither one. With reference to materials science, we only know parts of Europe. With regard to all the other continents – to keep with the metaphor – we probably don’t even know they exist. A flexible all-rounder for ambitious uses INNOVA is the preferred coating system size for most production requirements and is perfectly suited for small to large quantities. It is the all-rounder for PVD coatings. The name INNOVA has become a synonym for performance, reliability and versatility. Find out more about INNOVA: www.oerlikon.com/en/innova BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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10 Solutions Advancing technology, protecting AUTOMOTIVE the environmentThe team relies on Oerlikon Balzers as a partner in this reinvention EMISSIONS of automotive metal forming and design. Surface technologies such as Pulsed­Plasma Diffusion (PPD) are proving to be game­changers in MOTIVES improving both the stamping process and the durability and maintenance requirements of parts. Beijing Benz Automotive has applied the PPD treatment process to the molding of some key components, such as the Aluminum is key to the sustainable auto­ side and fender, of the best­selling C­Class automobiles on the market. mobile. Beijing Benz Automotive relies on “It is actually able to improve the the technologies of Oerlikon Balzers when wear resistance of our dies, and hence reduce scratches and wear punching and casting the metal. between the sheet and die in the production process,” Li Shanshan says. “This can indirectly extend the In the land where iron was Given those twin histories of service life of the die and therefore born, metal stamping is innovation, it’s no surprise that reduce the workload of our offline being reinvented. automotive R&D thrives at Beijing die maintenance, especially in You might not think that auto­ Benz A utomotive Co., Ltd., a terms of die care.” motive origins would be uncovered Mercedes­Benz subsidiary. Today, in archaeological sites whose the company’s priorities include artifacts date to the 5th century BC. initiatives that promote environmental After all, this is the century when protection. Major OEMs have issued Pheidippides ran 42 kilometers requirements for vehicle weight from M arathon to Athens – a reduction as a means of increas­ distance he could have covered ing fuel efficiency and reducing much faster if he’d had access to emissions. To comply with those a rental car. But in that same era, demands, the company must reduce the ancient Chinese had already the weight of sheet metal parts as processed iron, and they went on much as possible without compro­ to invent the method for making mising rigidity and strength. steel. We couldn’t get behind the wheel or onto the highway The obvious material to achieve these today without the work of those goals is aluminum, but the company pioneering ironworkers. faces many challenges in developing this solution. “These changes will And speaking of pioneers: You place high requirements on molding, also might think of cars as an such as the molding of aluminum early 20th century invention. alloy,” says Li Shanshan, Stamping But in fact, the first motorized Senior Manager, Manufacturing Engi­ (“horseless”) carriage appeared neering. “The relevant parameters in 1886 – the work of two German may not simply be copied from the gentlemen named Karl Benz and existing parameters for steel molding. Gottlieb Daimler. We need to start all over again.” BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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11 The carbon­based BALINIT TRITON «The Pulsed-Plasma Diffusion STAR coating technology delivers an additional competitive advantage treatment process reduces in aluminum sheet stamping by “ reducing the adverse effect of alumi­ scratches and wear between num scraps on our product quality,” which “is very helpful in ensuring sheet and die during production normal production,” says Zhang Dongwei, Stamping Process Super­ which leads to less workload of visor, Manufacturing Engineering. “We used this coating technology on our offl ine die maintenance.» two aluminum parts for our E­Class model to solve the aluminum scraps Li Shanshan, Beijing Benz Automotive Co., Ltd. issue that is prone to occur during production. In Europe, the application of this technology is likely standard use. In China, however, we may have been the fi rst OEM to have used this technology.”
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12 Solutions A roadmap for continued For Beijing Benz Automotive, these the engineers understand the chal­ innovation trends signify a need to lead the lenges their customers face and the There are more firsts ahead, in China industry not just in automotive standards the industry is establishing, and throughout the world. The auto­ innovation, but also in environmental the better equipped they will be to motive industry is pursuing strategies responsibility and stewardship. The introduce innovations that deliver for making environmental protection company therefore is committed to enhanced production, improved fuel as much a part of its identity as employing technologies that redefine efficiency, and meaningful gains in the individual mobility and distinctive best practices in metal stamping, reduction of carbon emissions.” style already are. forming, and surface treatment – practices whose end benefits support By working together, the two compa­ Demand for vehicles is accelerating the automotive industry’s contribu­ nies are already realizing the potential in emerging markets. The United tions to the beginning of a cleaner, that surface treatment technology Nations projects that the planet’s healthier, and more sustainable world. has to achieve these results. As they population (currently 7.6 billion) will Its partnership with Oerlikon Balzers continue to define industry challenges reach 8.6 billion by 2030, 9.8 billion creates the opportunity to develop and pursue more advanced solutions, by 2050, and stand at 11.2 billion OEM solutions that can take current they are well positioned for a produc­ in 2100, meaning that billions more advances even farther. tive ongoing relationship. consumers are on the way. And as the urbanization trend packs more “This approach to collaboration is a and more people and vehicles into hallmark of our team’s approach to metropolitan areas, air pollution has R&D,” says Henry Guo, Head of Tools created an urban health crisis. at Oerlikon Balzers China. “The more From left: Mr. Henry Guo, Oerlikon Balzers China, Mr. Chen Wengui, Mr. Xu Honghai, Ms. Li Shanshan and Mr. Zhang Dongwei from Beijing Benz Automotive Co., Ltd., Mr. Leo Huang, Oerlikon Balzers China. BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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Events 13 The Future of Industry 2ND MUNICH TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE ON ADDITITVE MANUFACTURING SAVE THE DATE! From the way we reduce carbon space, automotive, medical etc.), the emissions to the way we replicate entire process chain as well as its nature’s creative processes, additive individual parts. Further questions the manufacturing (AM) is fueling a conference will look at include: revolution, layer by layer. › How can we speed up the What opportunities will it create? i ndustrialization of AM? What will it take to win in this › Which materials are being used new landscape? Answering today and in the future? these questions productively and › What are the main cost drivers? profitably requires conversation What does a cost roadmap for and collaboration. AM look like? › What is possible to print, what The 2nd Munich Technology Con- are limitations? ference on Additive Manufacturing (MTC2) will advance idea exchange MTC2, hosted by Oerlikon together among world-renowned decision with the Technical University of makers and leaders from industry, Munich and other partners, will academia and politics. The main be held October 10–11, 2018 in focus of the conference is the Munich, Germany. industrialization of additive manufac- turing. Participants will consider the For more information, visit challenges of different markets (aero- www.munichtechconference.com
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14 Technology & Innovation LIKE GREASED L IGHTNING Coatings play a central role in the automotive industry. Their use helps reduce fuel consumption, lower emissions and increase wear resistance. In engines, we find a wide variety of coating technologies. Despite growing sales, the auto- have fewer cylinders, and these are coatings. They help to increase motive industry must confront and subject to higher pressures and place the performance and service master profound changes: Emissions more stress on the smaller parts. life of engine components as standards are becoming stricter, Exhaust gas recirculation, start-stop well as reduce friction and wear. more efficient vehicles are in demand systems and turbochargers also This improves both fuel and oil and e-vehicles are on the rise, as are contribute to increased corrosion in efficiency and lowers emissions. networking and digitalization. the engine. Suitable measures make More than half of the ten l argest it possible to meet these challenges: automobile manu factures employ Progress toward the goal of making BEYOND SURFACES offers twelve coating solutions from Oerlikon. engines more efficient means they are examples of how engines are being becoming smaller all the time. They improved through use of Oerlikon 1 Clearance control 4 coatings for reduction Laser hardening of of clearance complex shapes 2 5 OD and ID surface Direct coating of c oatings for friction connecting rod big and wear reduction end bearing 3 DLC coating for 6 wear protection and Thermal barrier friction reduction c oating for insulation
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1 15 11 10 8 12 9 7 3 2 6 5 4 7 10 Thin film oxide DLC coating for coating for protection wear protection and from scaling friction reduction 8 11 Laser cladding to ID laser cladding improve design freedom for wear protection 9 SUMEBore coating 12 for friction and wear Thermal barrier reduction and c orrosion coating for insulation of resistance combustion chamber BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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16 Technology & Innovation TRULY INGENIOUS In laser cladding, a material’s surface is melted while at the same time another material is applied. Although the technology is already 30 years old, it has been booming since the beginning of this decade. We spoke with Dr. Arkadi Zikin, Global Technology Leader for Laser Cladding at Oerlikon Metco, about the tremendous potential this process holds. Dr. Zikin, more and more industry material build-up. Moreover, the laser’s How did your discovery of this sectors are discovering the advan- energy can be controlled with excep- technology come about? tages of laser cladding. What are tional precision. Consequently, even During my studies, I worked with the strengths of this method? the smallest areas of only 0.2 mm in multifunctional surfaces and saw the In comparison to plasma welding, diameter can be processed, and very ongoing potential for developing many the energy influx of the laser into little energy is required to melt the new areas of application using laser the materials to be welded can be surface here. Or, to put it differently: cladding. I found that truly exciting controlled and dosed very well. Due to the additional capacity for and thought about how I could use What happens is this: Whenever we focus, the laser can achieve energy my knowledge to make a contribu- connect two materials by melting densities that would be very difficult tion. After completing my studies the surface of the base material and to obtain using conventional thermal and subsequent doctoral work, I applying another material, the mate- processes. This also means that the went to work for a German job-shop rials become mixed. This means that supporting component is exposed to specialist for laser welding. All the with conventional welding processes, a great deal less thermal stress, which theory in my head was one thing. such as MIG welding, we obtain results in a lower risk of warpage. But there I was able to implement my different surface properties than those the applied material would have by itself. Depending on the quality of the base material, it is therefore difficult to reproduce the result. In order to «The flexibility of this t echnology obtain a defined surface, conventional methods typically require several fascinated me. With a laser, layers to be applied one on top of the other. With laser cladding, however, the mixing of the materials is only you can work very delicately, one tenth of that which results from MIG welding. Because of this, we can but you can also deal with achieve the desired properties in the component with a significantly thinner large surfaces.» BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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17 Dr. Arkadi Zikin Global Technology Leader for Laser Cladding, Oerlikon Metco
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18 Technology & Innovation knowledge on the machines and learn an unbelievable amount while doing «In cooperation with ETH Zurich so. The flexibility of this technology fascinated me. With a laser, you can we are currently exploring indi- work very delicately, but you can also deal with large surfaces. That vidual laser cladding process makes it possible to find solutions for many different tasks. parameters and developing And then came the move new fields of application for to Oerlikon. (Smiling) I’ve always been drawn to laser cladding.» places where I can learn new things. In Oerlikon, I’ve found a company that is at the cutting edge of tech- nology. I welcomed the opportunity to further develop the area of laser (meaning they are not very environ- such as lightweight construction cladding internationally as an expert. mentally safe) can be replaced by engine blocks, will undoubtedly still Moreover, participating in opening up this method. be cast. But in assemblies like these, as yet unknown areas of application there are areas that must possess with this technology – and perhaps A second approach would be an special properties, for example valve even using entirely new materials – is increase of the laser’s power. This seat rings, which are exposed to high definitely very attractive. As the Global now already allows larger surface thermal and mechanical stresses. Technology Leader, I am the technical areas to be melted and coated – Instead of pressing these rings made point person for all questions dealing squares with a side length of up of special metals in place as is done with laser cladding. This enables me to 45 mm for example. Or greater today, they could be built up directly to make contributions for our custom- film thicknesses of two or three on the cast structures by means of ers as well as here in-house, regard- milli meters can be realized in only laser cladding. less of whether the issue is equipment a single pass. This type of laser assembly, new materials in develop- c ladding promises to deliver even All in all, we are currently in a very ment or service support on site. better surface properties than are exciting time with this technology. I’m known today for special applications. quite certain that in the next few years Laser cladding has been around many new areas of application will for almost 30 years. What do you A third would be that laser cladding open up for laser cladding. see for the future? is being positioned for use in the I see three directions of develop- field of additive manufacturing. The What are you currently working on ment. The first from my p erspective background for this is provided in your research at Oerlikon? would be “high-speed laser primarily by alloys based on titanium, Innosuisse is the Swiss agency cladding”. At the Fraunhofer Institute aluminum or copper that are very for the promotion of innovation. in Germany, work is being done on difficult to process using currently In January 2018, it assumed the “EHLA – extreme high-speed laser widespread welding procedures. I function of the previous Commission cladding”. Using this method allows see an attractive potential here for for Technology and Innovation (CTI). feed rates that are 100 to 250 times laser technology. This would allow Through one of its projects, we faster as compared to current laser very complex structures to be built are currently developing new fields cladding, and the very thin (yet at up layer for layer. A keyword here of application for laser cladding in the same time very dense) coatings would be 3D printing. cooperation with the Swiss Federal can be built up. This is especially of Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich). interest from an ecological perspec- Another application direction is essen- The topic is “Laser Hard Coating”. It tive because coatings that today are tially very similar, for example in the deals with the objective of reducing still being applied by galvanic means automotive industry: Large structures, the wear of components subject to BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018
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19 extreme mechanical stress using new coatings as well as experimenting with materials that are difficult to apply. In this collaboration with ETH, we are attempting to explore the relationships between the individual laser cladding process parameters and the different materials at a depth that would not be possible for either of us on our own. We are contributing our coating systems and our know- how to this project and are engaged in a lively exchange of information. The initial results are very promising. (Read more about the joint research project on page 20 and 21.) Why should customers look to Oerlikon for their laser cladding needs? There are plenty of companies that sell coating equipment or powders. We want to understand our custom- ers first and foremost. Especially in the case of laser cladding, a deeper process understanding is of great importance. We are pleased to be able to work together on customer applications and to help find solutions to new challenges. I think the overall package at Oerlikon is very good: We have the right materials and the right coating technology for different applications and offer the necessary support wherever it is desired. Thank you very much for the interview! Dr. Arkadi Zikin Dr. Zikin completed his master’s degree at the Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia). Research work sub- sequently led him to AC2T research, the Austrian Excellence Oerlikon offers services in the area Center for Tribology in Wiener Neustadt, where he earned of laser cladding in diverse industry his doctorate in the context of a collaboration between the sectors, from medical technology to technical universities of Tallinn and Vienna and AC2T. He gas turbines. Read more here: wrote his dissertation on the topic of “Advanced multiphase www.oerlikon.com/en/ tribo-functional hardfacings”. Since September 2015, the laser-cladding-services laser-cladding expert has been with Oerlikon.
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20 Technology & Innovation FINE TUNED COATINGS Today, many industries use laser cladding to coat metal parts in order to make them more wear and corrosion resistant. In collaboration with the industrial partner Oerlikon, ETH Zurich develops in an Innosuisse project methods to fine-tune the coating properties. Jona Engel, Doctorate at the D-MATL Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, shows first promising results. What are the latest trends in laser cladding? simulations. I am part of the Laboratory for Current applications of laser cladding are Nanometallurgy and have a background in e. g. the coating of machine parts in mining and materials science. In my experiments, I use construction, as well as the repair of pumps advanced technologies to characterize the and turbine blades. Embedding carbide par- coating material and to analyze how the whole ticles into the laser cladding is a new process part performs. Oerlikon Metco appreciates this that improves the performance of the coating interdisciplinary approach and has collaborated and enables new material combinations with our group for many years. e. g. with the toughness of high-performance alloys (super alloys) and the hardness of car- What kind of advanced technology do you bides and hard-metals. Another advantage of apply for your experiments? laser cladding compared to conventional weld- By using electron microscopes and in-situ ing is the robust automation of the process. testing, we can see many more details in the Our industrial partner Oerlikon Metco wants microstructure of the coating. We found out to broaden the field of possible applications that parts that appear to be similar after the of this process and to fine-tune the achieved first simple tests are actually quite different if properties. For this, a better understanding of we look closer. Our analyses reveal how the the laser cladding process is necessary. differences on the microscopic level lead to different material and part performances. In How do you achieve a better understand- materials, performance depends directly on ing of the laser cladding process? the microstructure. We change the coating We need three things: First, simulations that properties in two ways. First, we investigate predict what happens during the process; new material combinations. Second, we second, experiments that validate the alloy the feedstock material at very high s imulations; and third, benchmark testing of heating and cooling rates in the laser cladding the part performance. process and are able to reach unprecedented microstructural features. With small-scale Here at ETH Zurich, we have the unique and in-situ mechanical testing, we can find possibility to do joint research in all three areas. the properties of all phases and optimize My colleagues from the Institute of Machine the processes in terms of performance. My Tools and Manufacturing have expertise in colleagues use these experimental results to mechanical engineering and take care of the improve the simulations. BEYOND SURFACES 02|2018